FMCS Chattanooga Symposium

The Tennessee Aquarium Research Institute and The Tennessee Aquarium hosted the first symposium of the newly formed Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society (FMCS), March 16 - 20, 1999 in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The symposium was attended by over 280 individuals from 32 states and Canada.

Symposium sponsors: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Mussel Mitigation Trust, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, Tennessee Valley Authority, U.S. Forest Service, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, and The Nature Conservancy

The proceedings from the meeting were combined with the proceedings from the 1998 meeting and published in 2000. A hardbound copy is available from the Ohio Biological Survey, Inc.

Symposium Agenda

Tuesday, March 16, 1999

FMCS Executive Committee Meeting
Evening reception with the World Wildlife Fund's State of the Rivers Conference participants, Tennessee Aquarium.

Wednesday, March 17, 1999

Plenary Session with WWF State of the Rivers Conference

Welcome from the Southeast Aquatic Research Institute & Tennessee Aquarium.

An introduction to the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society (FMCS). A. C. Buchanan, FMCS President, Missouri Dept. of Conservation, Columbia, MO.

Welcome from the World Wildlife Fund, C. Hunt, Director, Freshwater Ecosystem Program, U.S. Program, Washington, DC.

Keynote Address. Ray Clark, Associate Director for NEPA Oversite, Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

Some perspectives on the status and distribution of freshwater gastropods. J. B. Burch, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Conservation status of freshwater mussels. J. D. Williams, USGS-BRD, Florida Carribean Science Center, Gainesville, FL.

Host-mussel interactions: mussels with a mission. G. T. Watters, Ohio Biological Survey & Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Surveys, Distributions, and Databases

Community ecology of Louisiana unionids: differences among rivers and coexistance of species. K. M. Brown, P. D. Banks & S. F. Keenan.

The freshwater molluscs of northern British Columbia: their ecology and distribution. J. S. Lee & J. D. Ackerman.

Conservation status of the freshwater mussel communities of Carolinian Canada. J. L. Metcalfe-Smith, S. K. Staton, G. L. Mackie & I. M. Scott.

Survey of pleurocerid snails of South Carolina. R. T. Dillon & E. P. Keferl.

The native mussels of Copper Creek, Virginia (Clinch River system): the recent decline of a once pristine fauna. S. J. Fraley & S. A. Ahlstedt.

Historical records database as an aid to conservation and regulation. D. N. Shelton.

An assessment of freshwater mussels in the south Florida ecosystem: a survey of selected sites. D. S. Ruessler, N. J. Kernaghan & T. S. Gross.

Results of a survey for selected species of Hydrobiidae in Georgia and Florida. C. N. Watson.

Unionids and habitat utilization in the Loup Basin of north-central Nebraska. E. Hoke.

Life History and Reproduction

Life History of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel, Alasmidonta heterodon: glochidial release phenology, mantle display behavior, and anadromous fish host relationship. B. J. Wicklow.

Life history aspects of the endangered fanshell, Cyprogenia stegaria. J. W. Jones & R. J. Neves.

A quantitative assessment of the gametogenic cycle of Potamilus alatus from the Tennessee River, Alabama. J. T. Garner & T. M. Haggerty.

Potential hosts and reproductive characteristics of some unusual unionids. M. C. Barnhart.

Host utilization and suitability among Venustaconcha populations in different river drainages. F. A. Riusech & M. C. Barnhart.

The morphology of conglutinates and conglutinate-like structures. G. T. Watters.

The conglutinates of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris and Strophitus undulatus: you can fool some of the fishes some of the time. G. T. Watters.

Poster Session I


1) Vertical and horizontal movement of Elliptio complanata with relation to temperature, substrate, and flow. W. J. Bartles, R. F. Villella & D. A. Weller.
2) Vertical migration in mussels. G. T. Watters, S. H. O'Dee, S. W. Chordas & J. Rieger.


3) Feeding interactions between early life stages of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia:Unionidae) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). M. M. Yeager, R. J. Neves & D. C. Cherry.
4) Potential food sources and trophic status of Ptychobranchus fasciolaris and Elliptio dilatata. B. N. Smith, A. D. Christian, J. C. Smoot, R. H. Findlay & D. J. Berg.


5) Assessment of molecular systematics of at-risk and endangered freshwater bivalves of the genus Alasmidonta. T. L. King, M. S. Eackles & R. F. Villella.
6) Identification of genetic variation in the freshwater bivalve Lasmigona subviridis by amplified fragment length polymorphism. V. M. Robbins, T. L. King & R. F. Villella.


7) The use of state fish hatchery for the cultivation of freshwater mussels. M. J. Pinder, M. A. McGregor, C. D. Stickley & J. J. Ferraro.
8) Restoration of federally listed mussel species within the territorial boundaries of Tennessee and Alabama. S. A. Ahlstedt & R. G. Biggins.
9) Recirculating aquaculture facility for the captive propagation of juvenile unionid mussels. R. A. Tankersley, T. Marshall & S. Butz.


10) Growth of Elliptio complanata: a transplant experiment. D. H. Kesler.
11) Temporal patterns of glycogen in riverine and relocated populations of Amblema plicata plicata. E. M. Monroe & T. J. Naimo.
12) Seasonal patterns in metabolic enzymes and substrates of rainbow mussels (Villosa iris), and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). B. B. Beaty & R. J. Neves.
13) The contribution of unionids to nitrogen cycling in a stream ecosystem. D. F. Raikow.
14) Freshwater mussel shell morphometrics in relation to different stream parameters in the New River (Suwannee drainage), Florida. H. N. Blalock & J. D. Williams. Toxicity
15) Concentrations of metals in mussels and snails near an ore deposit in northern Wisconsin. G. Miller, K. Groetsch & L. Brooke.
16) Comparative sensitivity of three species of unionid mussels to a suite of toxicants: glochidia and juvenile. A. E. Keller, K. Millar & L. Dorn.
17) Determining the sensitivity of several species of freshwater mussels to the herbicide, atrazine. N. J. Kernaghan, D. S. Ruessler & T. S. Gross.
18) Bioaccumulation of methylmercury by the freshwater mussel, Elliptio buckleyi. N. J. Kernaghan, D. S. Ruessler, C. J. Miles & T. S. Gross.
19) Effects of endocrine disrupting contaminants in freshwater mussels (Unionidae): Development and validation of procedures for monitoring endocrine function. T.S. Gross, N. J. Kernaghan & D. S. Ruessler.

Mussel and snail identification workshop.

Thursday, March 18, 1999

Quadrula fragosa on the St. Croix River, Wisconsin

Introduction to the research and management dealing with Quadrula fragosa on the St. Croix River, Wisconsin. D. J. Heath, R. L. Benjamin, M. B. Endris, R. L. Kenyon, M. C. Hove & J. E. Kurth.

Quadrula fragosa age structure and the relationship of year class strength to abiotic factors in the St. Croix River, Wisconsin. R. L Benjamin, D. J. Heath, M. B. Endris, R. L. Kenyon, M. C. Hove & J. E. Kurth.

Gravidity timing in freshwater mussels in the subfamily Ambleminae and Cumberlandiinae from the St. Croix River, Wisconsin. M. B. Endris, D. J. Heath, R. J. Benjamin, R. L. Kenyon, M. C. Hove & J. E. Kurth.

Reproductive behaviors and hosts of Quadrula fragosa and other amblemines. M. C. Hove, D. J. Heath, R. L. Benjamin, M. B. Endris, R. L. Kenyon & J. E. Kurth.

Identification of Quadrula fragosa with PCR technology. D. J. Hornbach, J. D. Kroese & J. G. Straka.

Quadrula fragosa panel discussion.

Mussel Toxicology

The effect of fine coal refuse on glochidia and juvenile unionid mussels. D. Gruber, W. J. Rasnake, J. L. Yeager & C. A. Smith.

A study of Cumberlandia monodonta in the Merimac River, MO. M. E. Baird.

The effects of contaminants in host fish on the survival of freshwater mussels (Unionidae). N. J. Kernaghan, D.S. Ruessler, R.M. Dorazio

Genetics - Concurrent I

The utility of a molecular genetic database to aid the identification of rare or problematic species for conservation purposes. K. J. Roe.

Molecular systematics of the unionid bivalve genera Fusconaia and Quincuncina: enigmatic, unnatural taxa. R. Minton, C. Lydeard & J. D. Williams.

Intraspecific phylogeography of the freshwater bivalve Lasmigona subviridis (Bivalvia:Unionidae). Tim L. King, M. S. Eackles & W. R. Hoeh.

Genetic technique for identification of host fishes for freshwater mussels (Bivalvia:Unionidae) of the upper Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee. B. T. Watson & R. J. Neves.

Tests for sexual isolation among populations of a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the freshwater snail Physa. A. R. Wethington, E. R. Eastman & R. T. Dillon

Molecular systematics, hidden diversity, and forgotten species: a case study of the genus Potamilus. J. Serb, K. J. Roe & C. Lydeard.

Genetic variation in lake populations of Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea in Minnesota. B. S. Bowen, J. A. Downing & K. A. Tuxbury.

Genetic structure of Amblema plicata, a habitat generalist. D. J. Berg, A. D. Christian & S. I. Guttman.

Outreach Workshop - Concurrent II

The national native mollusk conservation strategy: outreach efforts. K. I. Welke.

Clinch River community project. L. Colley.

The Unio Gallery. C. M. Barnhart.

Rough road to recovery. L. M. Koch.

Purple catspaw benefits from partnerships to improve water quality. K. Lammers.

A compendium of outreach activities and products - a panel discussion. J. Butler, H. Vinson & S. V. Oettingen.

Habitat, Species Surveys, and Conservation Biology -Concurrent III

Location and status of a new dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon, Bivalvia:Unionidae) population in the upper Connecticut River. R. D. Roy, M. E. Thompson & J. L. Ragonese.

Habitat suitability criteria for freshwater mussels: can mussels seek out suitable habitat. S. L. Johnson.

Conservation of an endangered succineid land snail. V. J. Meretsky, M. P. Miller, C. B. Nelson, J. A. Sorenson & L. E. Stevens.

Conservation biology of the purple catspaw mussel, Epioblasma obliquata obliquata. M. A. Hoggarth.

Habitat features and distribution of Athernia anthonyi in the Tennessee River (Miles 402 to 423). J. R. Orr & W. Pennington.

Changes in the mussel fauna of the Red River drainage: 1910 - present. C. C. Vaughn.

Diurnal rhythms of gaping behavior in seven species of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia:Unionidae). L. Y. Chen & R. J. Neves

Relationships between mussels, fish and sediments in the Apalachicola Basin of Alabama, Georgia and Florida. J. Brim-Box & J. D. Williams.

Zebra Mussels - Impacts and Management - Concurrent IV

Two years of follow-up after a 1996 unionid translocation from an area with a heavy infestation of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas 1771). M. E. Havlik.

A comparison of conservation strategies for Elliptio complanata and Lampsilis radiata threatened by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): periodic cleaning vs. quarantine and translocation. D. E. Hallac & J. E. Marsden.

Preliminary test of the efficacy of hand cleaning zebra mussels from unionids as a conservation measure. R. Klocek & T. Early.

Dreissena - shell habitat and antipredator behavior: combined effects on survivorship of snails co-occuring with molluscivorus fish. T. W. Stewart, J. G. Miner & R. L. Lowe.

Computer simulations of Amblema plicata plicata populations in the presence of Dreissena polymorpha infestations, Lake Pepin, upper-Mississippi River. R. A. Hart, J. W. Grier, A. C. Miller & M. Davis.

Zebra mussel prevention efforts on the St. Croix national scenic waterway, Minnesota and Wisconsin. B. N. Karns.

Zebra mussel colonization of selected streams in Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee. J. B. Layzer & L. M. Madison.

Techniques and Guidelines - Contributed
Clarion Hotel - Chattanooga Ballroom
Moderator - Heidi L. Dunn, Ecological Specialists, Inc., St. Peters, MO.

How much excavation is needed for monitoring populations of freshwater mussels. D. R. Smith, R. F. Villella & D. P. Lemarié

Sampling effectively to estimate the spatial distribution of freshwater mussels. P. S. Pooler & D. R. Smith.

Sampling evaluation of methods and results for freshwater mussel surveys. W. F. Henley & R. J. Neves.

Multistage sampling designs and hierachical models for estimating the abundance of mussels in streams. R. M. Dorazio & H. N. Blalock.

Use of a matrix to prioritize stream segments for mussel recovery efforts. C. F. Saylor, R. G. Biggins, J. J. Jenkinson & S. A. Ahlstedt.

A large-scale unionid mussels translocation in the Allegheny River: methods, results, and data management. G. F. Zimmerman, M. K. Huehner & D. G. Parker.

Techniques and Guidelines Workshop

Guidelines and techniques: basic procedures for freshwater mussels. R. F. Villella.

Guidelines for the freshwater mussel toxicity testing. J. L. Farris & W. G. Cope.

Guidelines for the captivecare of unionid mussels. C. M. Gatenby, P. A. Morrison & R. J. Neves.

Guidelines for the evaluation of freshwater mussel physiology. R. A. Tankersley.

Things to consider when sampling unionids. H. L. Dunn.

Relocation and reintroduction guidelines. H. L. Dunn & B. E. Sietman.

Guidelines for life history and physiological studies with unionid mussels. M. Bartsch & D. Waller.

Techniques Panel Discussion, Workshop and Contributed Sessions.

Poster Session II

Surveys and Monitoring

20) Distribution of mussels and fishes in the Little Fork River drainage, Minnesota. J.Gustafson, M. Hove, J. Hatch, J. Sieracki, J. Kurth, P. Mahoney, M. Tenpas, J. Iskierka, K. Radel & S. Weller.

21) The winged mapleleaf, Quadrula fragosa (Conrad 1835) in Kansas. D. E. Bleam, C. H. Cope, K. J. Couch & D. A. Distler.

22) Changes in unionid mussel community of the Tennessee River in the Kentucky section of Kentucky Lake since impoundment. J. B. Sickle, C. C. Chandler & J. J. Herod.

23) Physical microhabitat limitations of juvenile mussels. M. M. Kemperman.

24) The expanding range of Anodonta suborbiculata Say, 1831, in the eastern United States. B. E. Sietman, D. E. Kelner & D. C. Cray.

25)Anthropogenic mussel distributions - Cannon River and Superior National Forest, Minnesota. G. E. Wagenbach, M. C. Swift, S. DeRuiter, T. Dickson, C. Harbison & G. Jesperson.

26) Sample design for monitoring freshwater mussels affected by relocation. R. F. Villella, D. R. Smith, D. P. Lamarié, W. J. Bartles & D. A. Weller.

27) Preliminary results of freshwater mussel surveys in Delaware. K. A. Bennett & C. M. Heckscher.

28) Reevaluation of a small river mussel refuge: Verdigris River, Kansas. E. J. Miller.

29) A survey for rare mollusk species in the State of Tennessee. D. I. Withers & D. N. Shelton.

30) The apparent human introduction of non-native freshwater mussels in the Conecuh River, Escambia County, Alabama. D. N. Shelton & A. Gettleman.

31) A survey for living Lampsilis virescens in the Paint Rock River drainage, Jackson County, Alabama. J. C. Godwin & D. N. Shelton.

32) Status of Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, Villosa fabalis, and Lampsilis fasciola in Canada. S. K. Staton, J. L. Metcalfe-Smith, E. L. West, I. M. Scott & G. L. Mackie.

33) The global status and geographic hot spots of North America's unionid mussels. M. Morrison & L. Master.

34) Shifts in the morphology, distribution, and diversity of aquatic mollusks of the Conasauga River basin - a century of change. R. R. Evans & P. D. Johnson.

35) The mussel fauna, past, present, and future, of Sulpher Fork Creek and lower Red River, Tennessee, and laboratory transformation of glochidia. R. A. Ray & S. W. Hamilton.

Reproductive Biology

36) Hosts and host attracting behaviors of five upper-Mississippi River mussels. M. C. Hove, J. E. Kurth, D. J. Heath, R. L. Benjamin, M. B. Endris, R. L. Kenyon, A. R. Kapuscinski, K. R. Hillegass, T. W. Anderson & V. E. Pepi.

37) Effects of sediment size and light regime on juvenile wavy-rayed lampmussels, Lampsilis fasciola. S. O. Rogers & R. J. Neves.

38) Viability of glochidia of Utterbackia imbecillis, following their removal from the parental mussel. G. R. Fisher & R. V. Dimock.

39) Diversity of unionid mussels: structure and function in the Australasian family Hyriidae. R. V. Dimock & M. Byrne.

40) Morphological variation in some Elliptio glochidia from four Gulf and Atlantic Coast drainages in the southeastern United States. C. A. O'Brien, J. D. Williams & M. A. Hoggarth.

41) Scanning electron microscopy of mussel larvae. B. D. Miller & D. J. Hornbach

42) Videotape display behavior of the eastern pondmussel Ligumia nasuta, (Bivalvia: Unionidae). C. Corey & D. L. Strayer.

43) A nondestructive method to determine the sex of live Elliptio complanata. W. A. Lellis & R. L. Flynn.

44) Release of metamorphosed juveniles by the green floater, Lasmigona subviridis. W. A. Lellis, T. L. King & M. N. DiLauro.

45) Host identification studies for six species of Unionidae. G. T. Watters, S. W. Chordas, S. H. O'Dee & J. Reiger.


46) Biomass and annual production of the commercial freshwater mussels Amblema plicata, Quadrula quadrula, and Megalonaias nervosa in the Kentucky section of Kentucky Lake. C. E. Lewis & J. B. Sickel.

47) A conceptual framework for assessing the potential impact of climate change and introduced species on freshwater mussels of the northern Atlantic slope. E. J. Nedeau & A. D. Huryn.

48) Freshwater mussel management. D. W. Hubbs.

49) Observations of degrowth in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during field studies in Kentucky Lake, Kentucky. J. J. Herod & J. B. Sickel.

FMCS General Business Meeting

FMCS Raffle and Mixer

Friday, March 19, 1999

Closing Plenary Session

Guest Speaker - Brian Richter, Director, Rivers Conservation Program, TNC, Arlington, VA.

FMCS Lifetime Acheivement Awards. 1999 Receipients: David H. Stansbery, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; John B. Burch, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Paul Parmalee, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; & W. D. Russell-Hunter, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.

Propagation and Captive Care

Survival of glochidia of Lampsilis radiata luteola in-vitro. H. H. Lee & G. T. Watters.

Isolation, identification and control of bacteria which threaten in-vitro cultures of freshwater mussel glochidia. R. Loveless, S. Raymond, J. Inman, R. Hudson & M. Fairfax.

Propagation of endangered juvenile mussels for species recovery in Tennessee. R. J. Neves, J. W. Jones & W. H. Henley.

Experimental propagation of freshwater mussel species from the Upper Tennessee River system in Virginia. M. A. McGregor, M. J. Pinder, C. D. Stickley & J. J. Ferraro.

Effect of flow rate and temperature on the algal uptake by freshwater mussels in a dynamic system. K. R. Stuart, A. G. Eversole & D. E. Burne.

Culture and survival of Lampsilis spp. In a recirculating rearing system. M. S. Baird & C. M. Barnhart.

The effects of diet and holding time on survival and condition of fingernail clams, Musculium transversum. T. J. Naimo, W. G. Cope, E. M. Monroe, J. L. Farris & C. D. Milam.

Use of pond refugia for holding salvaged unionid mussels. C. M. Gatenby, B. C. Parker, D. R. Smith, K. J. Duncan & R. J. Neves.

Determining food resources and trophic level status of Unionidae: will using only carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios provide sufficient information? S. J. Nichols & D. Garling.

Seasonal nitrogen and phosphorus cycling by three unionid bivalves (Unionidae:Bivalvia) in headwater streams. W. R. Davis, A. D. Christian & D. J. Berg.

Interaction of freshwater unionids and salmonid fishes: relevance of bacterial contagion. C. E. Starliper, J. Mathias & J. Hickerson.

Special Session

The Biology and Conservation Status of North American Freshwater Gastropods
Working Towards a National Conservation Strategy for Freshwater Gastropods.

North American Freshwater Gastropod Diversity and Conservation. A. E. Bogan, North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC.

What we know of the comparative ecology of freshwater pulmonate and prosobranch gastropods. K. M. Brown, Department of Biological Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

The physiological ecology of freshwater gastropods. R. F. McMahon, Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX.

Genetics studies of North American freshwater gastropods: a review and recommendations for future research. C. Lydeard, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.

Conservation strategies with North American freshwater gastropods. S. A. Ahlstedt, USGS-WRD, Knoxville, TN. & P. D. Johnson, Southeast Aquatic Research Institute, Chattanooga, TN.

Panel discussion for freshwater gastropods.

FMCS Subcommittee Meetings - Open to All.

Tennessee River Gorge Cruise & Dinner aboard the Southern Belle.

Saturday, March 20, 1999

Organized field trip to a Native American shell midden on Nickjack Dam Tailwaters. Trip leaders Dr. Paul A. Parmalee, Professor Emeritus, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN and Dr. John J. Jenkinson, Water Management Division, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN.

Organized field trip to Lonnie Gardner's commercial mussel shell export business in Hollywood, Alabama. Trip leader: Steve Ahlstedt, USGS-WRD, Knoxville, TN.

On your own tour of the Tennessee Aquarium (